Describe the process of sexual reproduction and its role in evolution.

Ans: Sexual reproduction is a process by which offspring are produced through the combination of genetic material from two parent organisms, typically one male and one female. It involves the fusion of specialized reproductive cells (gametes) to create genetically diverse offspring.

Sexual reproduction plays a crucial role in evolution for several reasons:

a). Formation of Genetic Diversity:

Sexual reproduction generates genetic diversity in offspring. Each parent contributes a unique set of genes to their offspring, leading to genetic recombination. This recombination results in offspring that have a combination of genetic traits from both parents, leading to increased genetic variability within a population.

b). Natural Selection:

Genetic diversity is the raw material upon which natural selection acts. In changing environments, certain genetic traits may provide individuals with a survival or reproductive advantage.

Offspring with advantageous traits are more likely to survive and reproduce, passing on their genes to the next generation. Over time, this can lead to the adaptation and evolution of species.

c). Recombination of Alleles:

Sexual reproduction facilitates the recombination of alleles (different versions of a gene) through processes such as crossing over during meiosis. This recombination results in new combinations of alleles in offspring, potentially creating novel traits and genetic variations that can be subject to natural selection.

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