How does transportation of substances take place in plants and animals?

Ans: Transportation of substances in plants and animals involves the movement of essential materials like nutrients, water, gases, and waste products within the organism’s body. The processes and mechanisms for transportation differ between plants and animals:

Transportation in Plants:
In plants, transportation occurs through two main systems: the vascular system (xylem and phloem) and diffusion through cells.

Xylem: Xylem is responsible for transporting water and minerals from the roots to the rest of the plant, primarily through a process called transpiration. Transpiration is the loss of water vapor from leaves through tiny openings called stomata.

Phloem: Phloem transports the products of photosynthesis (primarily sugars) from the leaves, where they are produced, to other parts of the plant for growth and storage. This process is called translocation.

Transportation in Animals:
In animals, transportation involves the circulatory system, which includes the heart, blood vessels, and blood.

Blood Circulation:

  • The heart pumps blood, which carries oxygen, nutrients, hormones, and waste products, throughout the body.
  • Arteries carry oxygen-rich blood away from the heart to the body’s tissues.
  • Veins return oxygen-poor blood to the heart.
  • Capillaries are tiny blood vessels that connect arteries and veins, allowing for the exchange of substances between the blood and body cells.

Respiratory System:

  • In animals, the respiratory system is responsible for the exchange of gases (oxygen and carbon dioxide) between the body and the environment.
  • Oxygen is inhaled into the lungs and transported by the circulatory system to cells throughout the body.
  • Carbon dioxide, a waste product of metabolism, is carried by the blood to the lungs, where it is exhaled.

Digestive System:
The digestive system processes food, extracts nutrients (like glucose and amino acids), and releases them into the bloodstream for transport to cells.

Excretory System:
The excretory system eliminates waste products, such as urea and excess salts, from the body through the blood and urine.

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